# Of Sum of dices

# A nice little puzzle

So my next post was supposed to be about an extension to levenshtein automata, but I had some good reason to want to delay that for a bit. Anyway stay tuned !

In the meanwhile, as I was talking about dices at work, I thought about a very cool puzzle. He it goes :

** Find all ways to relabel the faces of two dices with non-negative integers in such a way that if you roll them, their sum follows a uniform law on [0, 35] ?**

So you probably know that when you roll two classical dices, their sum does not follow a uniform distribution.

7 is the most likely sum with a probability of $1 \over 6$. 2 and 12 are the least likely, with a probability of $1 \over 36$

Actually here is the actual distribution.

The goal is to change the number on each faces in order to make this distribution uniform over [1, 36]. Some of the solution are rather simple, some other look very cool.

Stop reading hear if you want to tackle the puzzle on your own.

# Sicherman dice

A very similar problem is to find a way to relabel dices such that their sum still follows the same distribution as two regular dices.

As explained in the Wikipedia page, there is only one solution to this problem and they are called the Sicherman dices. The dices go :

- 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4
- 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8.

Don’t click on the wikipedia page as the theory is basically is the same for the Sicherman dices and this problem.

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# Polynomials showing up

Algebra gives us all of the necessary tools to solve this problem in a very neat way. Let’s start by having a look at the probability of the sum of two dices… Let’s call $D_1$ and $D_2$ the random variable associated with the outcome of the first dice and the second dice respectively.

Then we can compute $the probability that their sum is S

$$ p(D_1 + D_2 = S) = \sum_{k=1}^{S-1} p(D_1 = k) p(D_2 = S-k) $$

You may recognize here a convolution, or the formula for polynomial multiplication. We’re going to heavily rely on this observation. Given a random variable D taking value within integer $0 \leq k \leq n$, we can define a polynomial $\phi(D)$ defined by

$$ \phi(D) = \sum_{k=0}^{n} p(D=k) X^k $$

We then have the interesting property that

$$ \phi({D_1} + {D_2}) = \phi({D_1})\phi({D_2})$$

Let’s see what it means with a very concrete example.
Assume that we have a tetraedric dice with the value `0, 1, 4, 5`

on one hand, and `0, 2, 8, 10`

on the other hand.

The polynomial associated to the first one is

$$1 + X + X^4 + X^5$$

The polynomial associated to the second one is

$$1 + X^2 + X^8 + X^10$$

Then I can compute the distribution of their sum by multiplying these two polynomials.

$$1 + X + X^2 + X^3 + X^4 + X^5 + X^6 + X^7$$

Which is the polynomial for the uniform law over [0, 7]. These two polynomials are actually solving our problem for dices with 4 faces.

# Cyclotomic

Finding two dices that solve our problem then boils down to finding pair of polynomials $\phi(D_1)$ and $\phi(D_2)$ such that

$$ \phi(D_1) \phi(D_2) = 1 + X + X^2 + X^3 + ... + X^{35} $$

We will call this polynomial U.

Just as there is a unique prime decomposition for integer, there is a unique (up to a scalar) prime decomposition for polynoms. If we can find it for U. Then we can just test all of the way to allocate each factors to one dice or the other. Going through all of the possible partitions, will give us all of the possible pair of dices.

Factorizing a polynomial is usually not easy at all. But this one is very special. You may have recognized a geometric series. We have :

$$ 1 + X + X^2 + X^3 + ... + X^{35} = { {1-X^{36}} \over {1- X}} $$

${1-X^{36}}$’s factorization is a well known problem. Its roots, also called root of unity are the complex numbers $(e^{2 i \pi k \over 36})_{0 \leq k < n}$. In $\mathbf{R}$, its factors are the so-called cyclotomic polynomials associated with the divisor of 36 (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36). We will just remove the one for 1, $X-1$ as it is divided away.

The resulting factorization for U is given

$$ U = (1 + X) \\ ~~~~(1 + X + X^2)\\ ~~(1 + X^2)\\ ~~~~(1 - X + X^2)\\ ~~~~(1 + X^3 + X^6)\\ ~~~~(1 - X^2 + X^4)\\ ~~~~(1 - X^3 + X^6)\\ ~~~~(1 - X^6 + X^{12})$$

We then need to attribute each factor to one or the other of the dice, multiply each dice set of factor, and check if the result is a valid dice (for instance, a negative coefficient is a no-no, and more than 6 monomial is not possible to make a dice).

And the possible solutions are :

```
[0, 3, 12, 15, 24, 27]
[0, 1, 2, 6, 7, 8]
[0, 1, 12, 13, 24, 25]
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10]
[0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15]
[0, 1, 2, 18, 19, 20]
[0, 1, 6, 7, 12, 13]
[0, 2, 4, 18, 20, 22]
[0, 1, 2, 9, 10, 11]
[0, 3, 6, 18, 21, 24]
[0, 1, 4, 5, 8, 9]
[0, 2, 12, 14, 24, 26]
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
[0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30]
```